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La obesidad se debe tratar de forma integral y como una enfermedad crónica grave10 47.

Solo un 55 % de las personas con obesidad informan haber sido diagnosticadas de obesidad. Entre los que hablaron sobre el peso con su profesional sanitario, solo el 24 % informó de que se había programado una cita de seguimiento relacionada con el peso13.

Tratamiento de estilo de vida basado en datos científicos: el tratamiento para la obesidad debe incluir dieta, ejercicio y modificación de la conducta47. Alimentación sana, actividad física y terapia conductual deben ser intervenciones de primera línea en todas las personas con un IMC ≥ 25 kg/m2 y deben formar parte de cualquier intervención para la pérdida de peso . Sin embargo, estas intervenciones no siempre son suficientes para mantener la pérdida de peso45,48.

Tratamiento farmacológico: el tratamiento con fármacos para la obesidad se puede considerar si el tratamiento de estilo de vida no proporciona suficientes beneficios clínicos a las personas con un IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2, o ≥ 27 kg/m2 con complicaciones relacionadas con la obesidad.48 Algunos de los medicamentos aprobados para el control de peso pueden actuar directamente sobre el sistema nervioso central, induciendo la pérdida de peso mediante la reducción de apetito, o actuar de manera periférica e inducir la pérdida de peso por interferir con la absorción por parte del sistema gastrointestinal.49

Procedimientos bariátricos: son la intervención de tercera línea para el tratamiento de la obesidad, que se recomienda en personas con un IMC ≥ 40 kg/m2 , o ≥ 35 kg/m2 con comorbilidades. La cirugía bariátrica puede ser malabsortiva (produce mala absorción de los alimentos) o restrictiva, y cada tipo requiere de diferentes cambios en el estilo de vida.50

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